Junghuhnia vincta var. vincta - a root rot pathogen of Hevea in Mexico

MycoNote 1
by: E. Setliff

J. vincta var. vincta (Berk.) I.A. Hood & M.A. Dick var. vincta is a tropical to subtropical root rot pathogen that occurs in North America as far north as about 31° N latitude (Saucier, MS) along the Gulf Coast of the U.S. (1). In the field, var. vincta basidiocarps vary in pore surface coloration from ochraceous (Fig. 1) to pinkish-orange-gray (Fig. 2) and are similar in outward appearance to other Junghuhnia species. Also, there is macroscopic similarity with Rigidoporus albostygius (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Rajchenb. except that the latter is much more pinkish when fresh [See forthcoming MycoNote 5]. Microscopically, J. vincta is recognized by having subglobose basidiospores (Fig. 3), obovate to cylindrical incrusted skeletocystidia (Fig. 4) and gloeopleurous mammiform cystidia (1,2) each with a papillum (Fig. 5).

J. vincta is present but unreported in the U.S. as a pathogen, however Weir (3) observed J. vincta on rubber (Hevea braziliensis) in Amazonia (Para, Brazil). Also, WJ Martin collections from Mexico in the SYRF herbarium labeled “A” and “B” showed fruiting bodies of J. vincta associated with decayed roots of rubber seedlings. In the southern U.S., vincta root rot may have been overlooked because the foliar symptoms are so similar to those caused by annosus and armillaria root diseases. Research will need to determine the level of virulence in American isolates. With the warming trend over the last several decades, the distribution of J. vincta may expand northward. Ecological exclusion also may be a controlling aspect of distribution.

Fig. 1. ECS-1884, on branch, El Yunque, Big Tree trail, Caribbean National Forest, Puerto Rico, coll. & det. by E. Setliff, 1 May 1991.
Fig. 2a. ECS-1965 on cut end of stump, El Yunque on Big Tree Trail, Puerto Rico, coll. & det. by E. Setliff, 6 May 1991.
Fig. 2b. Dried herbarium specimen of ECS-1965 with an ochraceous pore surface coloration.

In other locations, vincta root rot was reported on Aracaria cunninghamii (hoop pine) in Queensland, Australia (4), Pinus radiata in New Zealand (5) as well as other native plants (6, 7).  The Australian fungus Poria hyposclera (Berk. ex Cooke) Sacc., TYPE on banana corm is synonymous with J. vincta var. vincta (2). The mammiform cystidia in the TYPE of P. hyposclera were more asymmetrical than those in North American collections. Differences in pore surface coloration has caused much confusion in the Poria vincta complex [See forthcoming MycoNotes 2, 3 and 5].

Fig. 3. ECS 1884, basidio- spore. [Size range = [3.5-4.5 × 3-4 µm.a] a. Measurements take into account many collections. Thin sections were wetted with 95% EtOH then mounted in 2% KOH with a drop of phloxine
Fig. 4. ECS-1884, incrusted obovate to cylindrical incrusted skeletocystidia. Cystidial size ranged from (12-) 20-80 × 7-16 (-24) µm.
Fig. 5. ECS-1884, gloeopleurous mammiform cystidia [size range 10-20 × 5-11 µm with papillae 2-4 × 1-2 µm].

Acknowledgements: My thanks go to Drs. H.H. Burdsall and Karen Nakasone for their hospitality and laboratory support during my enjoyable visits to the Center for Forest Mycology Research (CFMR), U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Madison, WI. Photomicrographs shown in Figs. 3-5 were taken at CFMR.

Literature Cited: 

  1. Lowe, JL. 1966. Polyporaceae of North America: The genus Poria. State Univ. College of Forestry at Syracuse Univ., Syracuse, NY. 183 pp
  2. Setliff, EC. 1972. The taxonomy and morphology of Poria vincta. Mycologia 64:689-701.
  3. Weir, J. 1926. A pathological survey of the para rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) in the Amazon valley. USDA Dept. Bull. No. 1380. 129 pp.
  4. Bolland, L, JW Tierney, SM Winnington-Martin and M Ramsden. 1989. Investigations into the feasibility of biological  control of Phellinus noxius and Poria vincta in Queensland hoop pine plantations. In: Morrison, DJ. ed. Proceedings of the 7th Internat. Conf. on Root Butt rots. IUFRO Working Party S2.6.06. Aug 1988. Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC, Canada 72-82
  5. Hood, IA and MA Dick. 1988. Junghuhnia vincta (Berkeley) comb. nov., root pathogen of Pinus radiata. N.Z. Jour. Bot. 26:113-116.
  6. McKenzie, PK Buchanan and PR Johnston. 2002. Checklist of fungi on kauri. N.Z. Jour. Bot. 40:269-296.
  7. Ridley, GS & MA Dick. 2001. An introduction to the diseases of forest and amenity trees in New Zealand. Forest Research Bull. 220, N.Z. Forest Research Institute, Rotorua, N.Z. 110 pp. From Scion publications – Junghuhnia root rot. 

MycoNote 1
Created 5 June 2012
Email:  myconotes1@gmail.com
Series I